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 Powder Metallurgy

Powder metallurgy(PM) is a kind of metal processing method,uses  metal powder as raw material, by pressing and
sintering  to manufacture various kinds of products.
Powder metallurgy technology consists of three main steps: first, the main composition material is made into fine particles
of powder; Then fill the powder in the mold, press the mold with a certain pressure to form the required shape and size of
green body parts (green body). Finally sinter the green body at a high temperature.

The basic process of powder metallurgy technology

1. The preparation of raw material powder.
The existing milling method can be divided into two categories: mechanical and physical chemistry method. And
mechanical method can be divided into: mechanical crushing and atomization method; The physical and chemical method
is divided into: the electrochemical corrosion method, reduction method, chemical combination method, vapor deposition
method, liquid phase deposition method and electrolysis method.

2. Powder form into the green body as required.
The purpose of forming is to get the compact body with a certain shape and size , and make it has a certain density and
strength. Forming method is basically divided into extrusion forming and non-pressure moulding. Compression molding is
mostly used in extrusion forming.

3. Sintering of the green body.
Sintering is the key step is powder metallurgy. The green body, through sintering has the required final physical and
mechanical properties. Sintering is divided into unit system sintering and multicomponent system sintering. For the solid
phase sintering of unit system and multiple system,  the sintering temperature is lower than the melting point of metal and
alloy. For multicomponent system of liquid phase sintering, the sintering temperature is generally lower than the melting
point of the refractory compounds, and higher than the melting point of fusible components. In addition to the ordinary
sintering, there are apparent sintering, infiltration method, hot pressing method and so on special sintering process.

4. Products post processing.
Processing after sintering, can adopt different ways according to product requirements. Such as finishing, oiled, achining,
heat treatment and plating. In addition, in recent years, some new technology such as rolling, forging is used in powder
metallurgy post processing and get good results. 




PM process applicable materials:
Powder metallurgy is usually used to produce cemented carbide, anti-friction material, structure, material, filtration
materials, metal ceramic, no segregation of high-speed tool steel, magnetic materials, refractory material, etc.

The application of powder metallurgy:
Auto industry, metal industry, aerospace, instrumentation, hardware tools, engineering tools, construction machinery,
electronic appliances and high-tech industries, etc.


Powder metallurgy technology is an important material preparation and forming technology, is said to be the key to solve
the problem of high-tech and new materials. High performance, low cost, near net shape has been one of important topics
that powder metallurgy workers research. Powder metallurgy can fulfill workpiece less cutting and no cutting, is a highly
efficient, high quality, precision, low energy consumption and energy saving metallurgical technology. Entering1980 s,
consumer industries, especially automotive industry dependent on powder metallurgy technology more than ever. Using
powder metallurgy high performance parts as much as possible is a powerful means to improve the car competition ability
in the market.
High density of the PM products is the key factor to ensure its excellent mechanical properties. Therefore, in order to
expand the application range of the powder metallurgy parts, the density must be increased to get powder metallurgy parts
with excellent mechanical properties.


The advantages of powder metallurgy:
1. The vast majority of the refractory metals and their compounds, false alloy, porous materials can only be made with
powder metallurgy method.
2.  By powder metallurgy products can be pressed into the final size of the compact, and don't need or rarely need
subsequent CNC machining, so it can greatly save materials and reduce the cost. Products manufactured by the powder
metallurgy, the metal loss is only 1-5%, while general casting method for production, the loss of the metal could reach 80%.
3.  In the process powder metallurgy technology material does not melt, so there is no need to worry about the impurities
from crucible and deoxidizer. And sintering generally happens in a vacuum and reductive atmosphere, does not fear the
oxidation, will not bring any pollution to materials. Therefore, it is likely to preparing high purity materials.
4.  Powder metallurgy method can ensure the correctness and uniformity of the material composition ratio.
5.  Powder metallurgy is suitable for producing product with big quantity, especially the high cost of processing products
such as gear, made by powder metallurgy method can greatly reduce the production cost.

Features of powder metallurgy:
Technology diversity, powder preparation, forming, sintering technology multiple choices; Process complexity, the means
of advanced; Performance superiority, parts complexity, large scale, low cost.

 

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